File Formats

They are essential setup to store as many images on the memory card as possible.

This is the most commonly used industry-standard file format, and is generally what print or publishers ask for.
Raw files are generally available on advanced compact cameras and DSLRs and quite simply put.
Enter the DNG. This file format, created by Adobe, is an attempt to create a standard raw file format across all manufactures and cameras
Designed in the 90s as an improvement for GIF file format, PNG files are ideal for use of the internet

Like PNGs, GIF files are ideal for use on the internet, lossless compression means image quality is not sacrificed,

Another lossless file format, BMP was invented by Microsoft, initially for use of windows platform but is now recognized by programs on macs as well.

this file type is what Adobe Photoshop uses as a default to save data the big advantage of PSD files are that it allows for manipulation on specific individual layers.

5 Tips

1. Always focus on the eye,
2. Avoid direct sunlight
3. Always shoot in RAW
4. Shoot wide open
5. Never select all focus points

Camera Modes

1. Automatic Mode
Auto mode tells you your camera to use its best judgement to select shutter speed, aperture, ISO, white balance, focus and flash. This mode will give you nice results in many shooting conditions.
Portrait Mode
When you switch to portrait mode your camera will automatically select a large aperture which helps to keep your background out of focus a narrow depth of field. Portrait mode works best when your trying photographing a single subject so get in close to your subject.
Macro Mode
2. Macro mode lets you move your closer into your subject to take a picture. Its great for shooting flowers.
3. Landscape mode
This mode is almost the exact opposite of portrait mode in that it sets the camera up with a small aperture to make as much
4. Sports Mode
Photographing moving objects is what sports mode also called action mode in some cameras is designed for.
5.Night Mode
This is a really fun mode to play around with and can create some wonderfully colorful and interesting shots. Night mode technique also called slow shutter sync.
Movie Mode
This mode extends your digital camera from just capturing still images to capturing moving ones.
6. Aperture Priority mode
This mode is really a semi automatic mode where you choose the aperture and where your camera chooses the other settings, white balanced exposure.
7. Shutter priority mode
Shutter priority is very similar to aperture priority mode but is the mode where you select a shutter speed and the camera then chooses all of the other settings.

8. Program mode
Some digital cameras have this priority mode in addition to auto mode.
9. Maunual Mode
This mode you have full control over your camera and need to think about all settings including shutter speed, aperture, ISO, white balance.


1.All DSLR systems offer a dizzying selection of lenses for their cameras.
2. These range from fisheyes that give a field a 180 degree field of view, to telephoto lenses up to 800mm or more
3. Less expensive lenses will generally have variable apertures
4. More expensive lenses have a fixed aperture.
5. Wide angles should be used when prominent foreground objects are present
6. All major camera and lens manufactures offer a variety of focal lengths to satisfy most budgets.
7. The primary mistake made by new photographers is to use wide angles incorrectly- by not being close enough
8. Wide angles are handy in tight areas, like small rooms, cars, caves
9. They can give volume to the small area,
10. Wide angles have the potential to drastically change your photography
11. Standard lenses trend to range from about 35mm up to around 85mm.
12. Lenses in the standard zoom range will cover moderate wide angles typically 24mm to 35mm
13. Standard zoom lenses are great “walk around” lenses.
14.They are versatile, allowing both for wide angle work
15. Standard zooms are generally included SLR kits that come with lenses
16.Prime lenses are lenses that are just one focal length.
17. The most popular seems to be various flavors of 70-300 mm or 70-200 mm.
18. Telephoto lenses compress distance, making everything appear closer, as opposed to wide angles which distort perspective.
19. the telephoto lens compreses the distance, making the layers of mountains and mist looks almost flat.
20. A fast lens is usually one that has an aperture of f/4, f/2.8 or larger

Depth of field

Depth of field is not a fixed distance, it changes in size and can be described as either shallow or deep. Because depth of field has an impact on both the aesthetic and technical quality of a picture. Sometimes you’ll want to use an extensive depth of field in order to keep everything sharp. A shallow depth of field will be preferable. It enables you to blur background and foreground details, causing distractions to melt away and directs viewers to the focal point of the picture.

The image you normally see through the viewfinder or on the Live View screen displayed at the lens maximum, or widest, aperture the aperture you dial in on the camera body will only be set when you take a picture. Pressing the Depth of field preview button allows you to view appear sharp. There’s a range of ways to control the depth of field. Wider apertures and closer focusing distances lead to a shallower depth of field.